Bible Birds – How Many Are There? II

Brown Quail (Coturnix ypsilophora) by Ian

Brown Quail (Coturnix ypsilophora) by Ian

Birds of the Bible – How Many Are There? I (continued…)

As we continue in Genesis, the only other reference to birds that I have found is in Chapter 40. Joseph had been tossed in prison and in time he was joined by Pharaoh’s chief butler and his chief baker. They each have dreams and Joseph interprets them for the two men. Unfortunately the baker’s dream, which includes birds, will be killed.

And in the uppermost basket there was of all manner of bakemeats for Pharaoh; and the birds did eat them out of the basket upon my head. And Joseph answered and said, This is the interpretation thereof: The three baskets are three days: Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee. (Genesis 40:17-19 KJV)

Looking at the verses in the compare mode, “birds” or “birdies” are listed by all except one. The ECB calls them the “flyers.” No matter what they are called, it was not a good day for the Chief Baker.

That brings us to the book of Exodus as the children of Israel travel through the wilderness that we meet our next named bird. The Quail. They had been complaining about only eating manna and started asking why they couldn’t have meat. So the LORD sent them quail or whatever we find they called them. I wrote about this avian critter in Birds of the Bible – Quail and in Quail II. Let’s see how the quail in translated here.

And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host. (Exodus 16:13 KJV)

  • Quail or quails by most versions
  • mother-quail (ABP+)
  • little birds (BBE)
Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) by Peter Ericsson

Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) by Peter Ericsson

Our next verse and named bird is in Exodus 19:4 where the LORD is telling Moses what to tell the people.

Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles‘ wings, and brought you unto myself. (Exodus 19:4 KJV)

The power of the eagle’s wings is referred to as how He freed them from their bondage in Egypt. So now we can add the Eagle to our list of birds. There are many references to Eagles throughout God’s Word. Every version mentions “eagle’s wings” or “wings of eagles.” See the Eagle articles.

As we move on to Leviticus, our count of the birds is going to really climb as we encounter the list of the Clean and Unclean birds in Chapter 11 also lots a variety as to how those birds are translated. Before we get there, the sacrifices are mentioned of the turtledoves or young pigeons, previously covered, in Lev 1:14, 5:7, 11, 12:6, 8, and  chapters 14 and 15.

And if the burnt sacrifice of his offering to the LORD is of birds, then he shall bring his offering of turtledoves or young pigeons. (Leviticus 1:14 NKJV)

I am going to quote the KJV and NKJV for the list, then we will check out the variations:

Leviticus 11:13-19 KJV
(13) And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
(14) And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;
(15) Every raven after his kind;
(16) And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,
(17) And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,
(18) And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,
(19) And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.

Leviticus 11:13-19 NKJV
(13) ‘And these you shall regard as an abomination among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, the vulture, the buzzard,
(14) the kite, and the falcon after its kind;
(15) every raven after its kind,
(16) the ostrich, the short-eared owl, the sea gull, and the hawk after its kind;
(17) the little owl, the fisher owl, and the screech owl;
(18) the white owl, the jackdaw, and the carrion vulture;
(19) the stork, the heron after its kind, the hoopoe, and the bat.

Can you see the differences already? That is just two translations, let’s see what the others reveal. So far we now have added; ossifrage, ospray, kite, night hawk, cuckow, hawk, little owl, cormorant, great owl, swan, pelican, gier eagle, stork, heron, lapwing, falcon, ostrich, short-eared owl, sea gull, fisher owl, screech owl, white owl, jackdaw, carrion vulture, hoopoe.

Levitus 11: 13 -

  • griffin (ABP+) (DRB) griffon vulture (NET),  
  • gier-eagle (ASV) (BBE) (RV),
  • Goshauke (Bishops) (Geneva) (Tyndale),
  • sea-eagle (Brenton) (Darby),
  • buzzards (ERV) (NAS77) (NASB) (UKJV),
  • bearded vulture and black vulture (ESV) (GW) (HCSB) (LITV) (MKJV)(WEB R) black and great vulture (JPS)
  • cormoraunte and kyte (Tyndale)

Some list them all in one verse:

(CEV) Eagles, vultures, buzzards, crows, ostriches, hawks, sea gulls, owls, pelicans, storks, herons, hoopoes, and bats are also disgusting, and you are forbidden to eat any of them.
(GNB) You must not eat any of the following birds: eagles, owls, hawks, falcons; buzzards, vultures, crows; ostriches; seagulls, storks, herons, pelicans, cormorants; hoopoes; or bats.

The next two verses are easier. Verse 14 has all birds of prey: (KJV)  “And the vulture, and the kite after his kind; “

  • vulture – “whole species of falcon” (AMP)
  • kite
  • crows (ABP+)
  • buzzards (CJB) (GW) (NRSV)
  • falcon (Darby) + others
  • hawk (ECB)
  • red kite (ISV)
  • red kites and all kinds of black kites (NIrV) (NIV) (WEB (R))
One last verse for now: “every raven of any kind,” (Leviticus 11:15 ESV)
  • black birds, (ERV)
  • crows (GW) (NET)
Ravens, Blackbirds and Crows are all in the same family. No problem there.

In our list below, I doubled up the obvious birds that are in the same family like the owls and vultures.

Our list of Birds of the Bible so far:

Also mentioned:

  • Swooper (Gen 15:11)
  • Flyers (Gen 40:19) (Lev 11:13)

I am only listing what the different versions have written. I am neither approving or disapproving those versions.

For now, that is enough. To be continued in Part III.

Wordless Birds

Disclaimer About Bible Version Usage

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Bible Birds – How Many Are There? I

Chihuahuan Raven (Corvus cryptoleucus)Raven (Corvus corax) by Kent Nickell

Northern Raven (Corvus corax) by Kent Nickell

The list of the Bible Birds varies according to which version of the Bible you use. We have discussed this in other articles, but don’t think I ever actually listed them all. An article from Birding and the Bible says there are 29 and then questions 2 of them, the Glede and the Ossifrage, adding the Swift, his lists is 28 or 29.

The sidebar here has links to 33 pages of Bible Birds. There are a few more I am considering adding. After this study, I may find even more. I am going to write this as I do my research using my e-Sword program (free). Currently, I have quite a few versions of the Scriptures loaded and want to see what is listed. (Disclaimer About Bible Version Usage) Let’s get started.

The very first reference to birds or fowls, is in Genesis 1:21. That is where God created “every winged fowl after his kind” (KJV) or ” every winged bird according to its kind” (NKJV). Most agree with, “And God saw that it was good.” Here are some of the other ways of stating it:

  • “winged creature feathered  according to type.” (ABP+)
  • “every creature that flies with wings according to its kind,” (Brenton)
  • “every kind of bird that flies in the air.” (ERV)
  • ” all kinds of birds.” (GNB)
  • “He created every kind of bird that flies.” (NIrV)

So basically, all agree that the birds or fowls were created after their kind or type on the fifth day (1:23) and that God saw that it was good. That right there includes all the major families of birds, some have become extinct, some which interbred within their kinds, etc. until today we now have over 10,000 named species of birds. (Birds of the World)

In Genesis 1:25 God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion” over birds, etc. The term his is given as “dominion over”, “have rule over”, “power over” (GNB), “be masters over” (ISV), “So they can be responsible for” (MSG).

Then in Genesis 2:20, Adam named the birds that the LORD God brought to him. The version all agree that they are birds or fowls or the air or heavens.

In chapter 3, Adam and Eve sin against God and we all come under the judgement including the critters, birds included. By chapter 6, things are so bad that the LORD tells Noah to bring two of every kind of critter into the Ark and then in 6:20, the birds are again mentioned. They are to be preserved in pairs of sevens. Again, no specific named bird is mentioned throughout chapter 6 or 7.

Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) by Lee

During and after the Flood, then we finally here of specific named birds. The first bird named in the Bible is the Raven. Noah opened the window of the ark and “sent forth a raven” and it flew back and forth “until the waters were dried up from off the earth.” (KJV) Other than spelling differences, they all agree on the Raven. The same is true of verse 8 where the Dove was released. The Dove kept coming back until the waters were totally dried up. The third time it was released, it did not return.

So now we have 2 Birds of the Bible – the Raven and the Dove.

The next reference to birds is in 9:2 where the birds now have a fear of humans placed on them. They, the birds, are told to multiply and fill the earth and are given a covenant or promise by God that the earth would never be destroyed by a worldwide flood again. Gen 9:10-17 – the Rainbow.

And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered. (Genesis 9:2 KJV)

King Vulture Brevard Zoo 120913 by Lee

King Vulture Brevard Zoo by Lee

In Genesis 15:9 we find the next birds, a Turtledove, young pigeon and in 15:11, the vultures. Two are sacrificed birds, the other is coming to take from the alter.

So He said to him, “Bring Me a three-year-old heifer, a three-year-old female goat, a three-year-old ram, a turtledove, and a young pigeon.” Then he brought all these to Him and cut them in two, down the middle, and placed each piece opposite the other; but he did not cut the birds in two. And when the vultures came down on the carcasses, Abram drove them away. (Genesis 15:9-11 NKJV)

Let’s see how these birds are given in the various translations. “dove” several, “turtle” (DRB), “mourning dove” (GW), “even a nestling” (LITV), and “young bird” (YLT). Most are in agreement with spelling differences from the old English of some of the translations.

Verse 11 has: birds of prey, birds, fowls, large birds (DRB), swoopers (ECB), Vultures (GNB, MSG, NKJV), and ravenous birds (YLT). Never heard of “swoopers”, so I guess that one doesn’t count. What you think? They all realize that some birds came swooping down trying to get at the sacrifice, but Abram drove them away.

Our list of Bible Birds so far:

Also mentioned:

  • Swooper (Gen 15:11)

For now, that is enough. To be continued in Part II.

Bible Birds

Birds of the Bible (main site)

Wordless Birds

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Birds of the Bible – Flying

African Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) by Africaddict

African Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) by Africaddict

Wilt thou set thine eyes upon that which is not? for riches certainly make themselves wings; they fly away as an eagle toward heaven. (Proverbs 23:5)

Using e-Sword’s search for just the word “fly,” there are 15 verses in the AMP, 16 in the ESV, and 25 in the KJV. They can’t all refer to a bird flying around, so let’s see how many actually refer to the birds.

Here are the verses from the KJV:

And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. (Gen_1:20)

Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the LORD, but didst fly upon the spoil, and didst evil in the sight of the LORD? (1Sa_15:19)

And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: and he was seen upon the wings of the wind. (2Sa_22:11)

Yet man is born unto trouble, as the sparks fly upward. (Job_5:7)

He shall fly away as a dream, and shall not be found: yea, he shall be chased away as a vision of the night. (Job_20:8)

Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south? (Job_39:26)

And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind. (Psa_18:10)

And I said, Oh that I had wings like a dove! for then would I fly away, and be at rest. (Psa_55:6)

The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away. (Psa_90:10)

Wilt thou set thine eyes upon that which is not? for riches certainly make themselves wings; they fly away as an eagle toward heaven. (Pro_23:5)

Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. (Isa_6:2)

And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria. (Isa_7:18)

But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them. (Isa_11:14)

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©WikiC

Rock Dove (Columba livia) ©WikiC

Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their windows? (Isa_60:8)

For thus saith the LORD; Behold, he shall fly as an eagle, and shall spread his wings over Moab. (Jer_48:40)

Behold, he shall come up and fly as the eagle, and spread his wings over Bozrah: and at that day shall the heart of the mighty men of Edom be as the heart of a woman in her pangs. (Jer_49:22)

Wherefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against your pillows, wherewith ye there hunt the souls to make them fly, and I will tear them from your arms, and will let the souls go, even the souls that ye hunt to make them fly. (Eze_13:20)

Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation. (Dan_9:21)

As for Ephraim, their glory shall fly away like a bird, from the birth, and from the womb, and from the conception. (Hos_9:11)

Their horses also are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves: and their horsemen shall spread themselves, and their horsemen shall come from far; they shall fly as the eagle that hasteth to eat. (Hab_1:8)

And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent. (Rev_12:14)

And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, (Rev_14:6)

And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God; (Rev_19:17)

How many do you think directly relate to birds? Some refer to their speed of flying. How many birds were actually named?

Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) by Daves BirdingPix

Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) by Daves BirdingPix

I trust you enjoy digging into God’s Word more than just reading it. If you have a program like e-Sword (free) or something similiar or a good concordance, you can do these type of searches.

Back to the questions – which verses have birds mentioned?

fowl that may fly above the earth (Gen_1:20)

hawk fly (Job_39:26)

dove! for then would I fly away, and be at rest. (Psa_55:6)

fly away as an eagle toward heaven. (Pro_23:5)

fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their windows? (Isa_60:8)

shall fly as an eagle, and shall spread his wings over Moab. (Jer_48:40)

fly as the eagle, and spread his wings over Bozrah (Jer_49:22)

their glory shall fly away like a bird, (Hos_9:11)

fly as the eagle that hasteth to eat. (Hab_1:8)

two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness (Rev_12:14)

all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven (Rev_19:17)

The Bible tells us:

But now ask the beasts, and they will teach you; And the birds of the air, and they will tell you; (Job 12:7 NKJV)

If you had never watched a bird fly, would any of those verses above make sense to you? The Lord not only has given all the numerous birds for us to enjoy, but also to teach us lessons.

Would you understand “…for riches certainly make themselves wings; they fly away as an eagle toward heaven. (Proverbs 23:5) if you had not seen how fast an eagle flies? How fast can we waste our riches?

Thinking about how birds fly, reread the verses above, even the ones that do not mention birds and see if that doesn’t help explain parts of the verse.

See:

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One of my favorite videos.

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Birds of the Bible – Wing Survey

Sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) Left Wing by Lee at Lowry Park Zoo

Sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) Left Wing by Lee at Lowry Park Zoo

While reading in Exodus 25 this week, I noticed that the plan for the Ark is written out in quite specific details. The plans for the mercy seat was to be covered by the outstretched wings of the cherubims of gold.

And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be. (Exodus 25:20 KJV)

I wondered if I had written much about “wings”, so I checked and found only three articles, so far:

I am curious about what can be found, so, let’s see what we can find. Of course my e-Sword is fired up and ready for the searching. Searching first with just “wing”, only 6 verses show up. I Kings 6:24, 6:27; 2 Chronicles 3:11-2 all refer to the wing of the cherub. Isaiah 10:14 actually mentions a bird having its eggs taken and not moving its wing, opening its mouth or peeping. It is used as an illustration.

And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people: and as one gathereth eggs that are left, have I gathered all the earth; and there was none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped. (Isaiah 10:14 KJV)

Ezekiel 17:23 is the verse used in Fowl (Birds) of Every Wing.

Searching again with “wings” this time shows 64 verses (KJV). Again the cherubims are mentioned in Exodus 25:20, 37:9; I Kings 6:26, 8:6, 8:7; 1 Chronicles 28:18; 2 Chronicles 3:11, 3:13, 5:7-8. Cherubim and serephim wings are again mentioned later in the prophecies of Isaiah (Isa 6:2, 8:8, 18:1, and 40:31), Ezekiel (Exe 1:6-11, 1:23-25, 3:13, 10:5-21, 11:22) and Daniel.  Ezekiel 17:3 & 7 mention “A great eagle with great wings, longwinged, full of feathers” and “another great eagle with great wings and many feathers” Daniel 7:4 and 6 mention “eagle’s wings” and “wings of a fowl

Wedge-tailed Eagle (Aquila audax) ©WikiC

Wedge-tailed Eagle (Aquila audax) ©WikiC

Eagles’ wings are mentioned several more times:

Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles‘ wings, and brought you unto myself. (Exodus 19:4 KJV)

As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, beareth them on her wings: (Deuteronomy 32:11 KJV)

Wilt thou set thine eyes upon that which is not? for riches certainly make themselves wings; they fly away as an eagle toward heaven. (Proverbs 23:5 KJV)

But they that wait upon the LORD shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint. (Isaiah 40:31 KJV)

For thus saith the LORD; Behold, he shall fly as an eagle, and shall spread his wings over Moab. (Jeremiah 48:40 KJV)

Behold, he shall come up and fly as the eagle, and spread his wings over Bozrah: and at that day shall the heart of the mighty men of Edom be as the heart of a woman in her pangs. (Jeremiah 49:22 KJV)

Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) by Nikhil Devasar

Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) by Nikhil Devasar

Of course other birds are named such as:

Gavest thou the goodly wings unto the peacocks? or wings and feathers unto the ostrich? (Job 39:13 KJV)

Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south? (Job 39:26 KJV)

And I said, Oh that I had wings like a dove! for then would I fly away, and be at rest. (Psalms 55:6 KJV)

Though ye have lien among the pots, yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow gold. (Psalms 68:13 KJV)

Then lifted I up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came out two women, and the wind was in their wings; for they had wings like the wings of a stork: and they lifted up the ephah between the earth and the heaven. (Zechariah 5:9 KJV)

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! (Matthew 23:37 KJV)

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not! (Luke 13:34 KJV)

Baby Chick Peeping Out From Under His Mom's Wing - ©©

Baby Chick Peeping Out From Under His Mom’s Wing – ©©

Other references to wings:

  • wings of the wind – 2 Samuel 22:11
  • under whose wings thou art come to trust. – Ruth 2:12
  • hide me under the shadow of thy wings – Psalm 17:8
  • fly upon the wings of the wind – Psalm 18:10
  • trust under the shadow of thy wings. – Psalm 36:7
  • in the shadow of thy wings will I make my refuge – Psalm 57:1
  • rust in the covert of thy wings – Psalm 61:4
  • in the shadow of thy wings will I rejoice – Psalm 63:7
  • He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust – Psalm 91:4
  • the wings of the wind – Psalm 104:3
  • If I take the wings of the morning – Psalm 139:9
  • for a bird of the air shall carry the voice, and that which hath wings shall tell the matter. – Ecclesiastes 10:20
  • stretching out of his wings – Isaiah 8:8
  • shadowing with wings – Isaiah 18:1
  • Give wings unto Moab, that it may flee and get away – Jeremiah 48:9
  • The wind hath bound her up in her wings – Hosea 4:19
  • healing in his wings – Malachi 4:2

That is an interesting survey of the verses with wing or wings in them. Now I will have to get busy and use this information in some future articles. There are definitely some trends that can be seen. Do you see them? Shadow, wind, healing and trust, just to name a few.

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Birds of the Bible

Wordless Birds

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Birds of the Bible – Names Study – Plover

American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica) at National Aviary by Lee

American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica) at National Aviary by Lee

From the article on Kosher Animals that we have been looking at with our Bird Name Study, the Plover is listed. I haven’t added a page for this bird so far, so let’s see what we can learn about this bird.

Under the Birds section they give a list of birds from the Septuagint and that is where we find the plover listed:

“The Septuagint versions of the lists are more helpful, as in almost all cases the bird is clearly identifiable:

charadrios (plover)”

They show that it appears in the LXX in Deuteronomy 14:18 and in Leviticus 11:19. Of course I can’t read it, but here it is from the LXX-BYZ on my e-Sword.

Deu 14:18 kaiG2532 CONJ pelekana N-ASM kaiG2532 CONJ charadrion N-ASM kaiG2532 CONJ taG3588 T-APN omoiaG3664 A-APN autoG846 D-DSM kaiG2532 CONJ porphuriona N-ASM kaiG2532 CONJ nukterida N-ASF

I do see the word charadrion in it though. Looking at my database of birds from IOC Version 3.2, the CHARADRIIFORMES Order came up. That is the Shorebirds and Allies Order. The Plover is definitely in that group. The Plovers are in the Charadriidae Family. The Plovers are there and also the Lapwings. Yet, checking the compare mode of all the Bible versions loaded, the Plover is not in any other translation. (at least in my English versions that I can read)

That bird is either translated as Lapwing or Hoopoe. This is going to take some more digging. I have already written about both of those birds.

The KJV+ uses H1744

And the stork, H2624 and the heron H601 after her kind, H4327 and the lapwing, H1744 and the bat. H5847 (Deuteronomy 14:18 KJV+)

H1744
דּוּכּיפת
dûkı̂yphath
doo-kee-fath’
Of uncertain derivation; the hoopoe or else the grouse: – lapwing.
Strong’s Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries

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The BTSCTVM (which combines Brown Driver Briggs, Thayers, the KJV Concordance, and Strong’s TMV) has:

- Original: דּוּכּיפת
– Transliteration: Duwkiyphath
– Phonetic: doo-kee-fath’
– Definition:
1. unclean bird (probably hoopoe)
– Origin: of uncertain derivation
– TWOT entry: 414
– Part(s) of speech: Noun Feminine

- Strong’s: Of uncertain derivation; the hoopoe or else the grouse: – lapwing.
Total KJV Occurrences: 2
• lapwing, 2
Lev_11:19; Deu_14:18

From what is above, there is really no need to make a new Plover page. Since Plovers and Lapwings are in the same family, Charadriidae and many of the Scriptures say frequently, “their kind,” that is exactly what they are. “Same Kinds” (Oh, no! Did you notice they threw the “grouse” into that last definition. Later.)

We have also written about the Hoopoe, which is a totally different Order and Family.

Black-bellied Plover - Ft DeSoto 11-22-12 Thanksgiving by Lee

Black-bellied Plover – Ft DeSoto 11-22-12 Thanksgiving

Plovers are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae. There are about 40 species in the subfamily, most of them called “plover” or “dotterel”. The closely related lapwing subfamily, Vanellinae, comprises another 20-odd species.

Plovers are found throughout the world, and are characterised by relatively short bills. They hunt by sight, rather than by feel as longer-billed waders like snipes do.

They feed mainly on insects, worms or other invertebrates, depending on habitat, which are obtained by a run-and-pause technique, rather than the steady probing of some other wader groups.

The plover group of birds has a distraction display subcategorized as false brooding, pretending to change position, to sit on an imaginary nest site.

A group of plovers may be referred to as a stand, wing, or congregation. A group of dotterels may be referred to as a trip. (Wikipedia)

Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) by Nik

Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) by Nikhil Devasar

The versions of the Bible that list the Lapwing are: AKJV, Bishops, ECB, IAV, KJV, TRC, Tyndale, UKJV, Webster and the YLT.

Here is a very interesting version of Deut. 14:16:

The bittern, and the charadrion, every one in their kind: the houp also and the bat. (Deuteronomy 14:18 DRB)

That version actually mentions the Charadrion and the “houp,” which is the Hoopoe.

If you look through the birds in the Charadriidae Family you will find that the Lord was gracious and omniscient in his creative design of those species. I trust you never tire of studying God’s Word.

In your studies about the birds and other topics in the Bible, don’t forget one of the most important verses:

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3:16 KJV)

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See:
Birds of the Bible

Gospel Message
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Birds of the Bible – Name Study – Swamphen or Waterhen

Purple Gallinule by Lee at Lake Hollingsworth by Lee

Purple Gallinule by Lee at Lake Hollingsworth by Lee

And the swan, and the bittern, and the porphyrion. (Leviticus 11:18 DRB)

And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle, (Leviticus 11:18 KJV)

the white owl, the jackdaw, and the carrion vulture; (Leviticus 11:18)

et cygnum, et onocrotalum, et porphyrionem, (Leviticus 11:18 clVulgate)

A quote from the article mentioned in Birds of the Bible – Names of Birds Study Introduction from Kosher Animals – Birds about the “porphyrion”:

“An additional complexity arises from the fact that the porphyrion has not yet been identified, and classical Greek literature merely identifies a number of species that are not the porphyrion, including the peacock, grouse, and robin, and implies that the porphyrion is the cousin of the kingfisher; from these meagre clarifications, the porphyrion can only be identified as anything from the Lilac-breasted Roller, Indian Roller, or Northern Carmine Bee-eater, to the flamingo.”

This caused studying to find out more about this. Working so much with the names of birds of the world that I list, a search of that database came up with these Latin named birds with similar spelling and the Waterhen listed in some Bible translations, so it is listed also.:

Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio)
African Swamphen (Porphyrio madagascariensis)
White Swamphen (Porphyrio albus) † Extinct
Mohoau (Porphyrio mantelli) † Extinct
Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri)
Allen’s Gallinule (Porphyrio alleni)
Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinicus)
Azure Gallinule (Porphyrio flavirostris)

Purple-throated Cotinga (Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema)  ©Cincinnati Zoo
Blue Finch (Porphyrospiza caerulescens) IBC

White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus)

Interesting. The Cotinga and the Finch, I believe could be eliminated as birds not on the unclean list. The birds left are all part of the Rails, Crakes and Coots-Rallidae Family. Also looking back over previous posts, the Water-hen was written about in Birds of the Bible – Water-hen or Water hen. Some insight was discovered in that article.

Which bird is intended by the Bible? I have no definite answer. But, for the sake of learning more about birds, let’s look at the ones left on the list above. Notice that “purple” does show up in most of these birds.

Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) by Bob-Nan

Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) by Bob-Nan

The Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio), also known as the Pūkeko, African Purple Swamphen, Purple Moorhen, Purple Gallinule or Purple Coot, is a large bird in the family Rallidae (rails). From its name in French, talève sultane, it is also known as the Sultana Bird. This chicken-sized bird, with its huge feet, bright plumage and red bill and frontal shield is easily-recognisable in its native range. It should not be confused with the American Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinica.

There are 13 or more subspecies of the Purple Swamphen (depending on the authority) which differ mainly in plumage colour.
The species makes loud, quick, bleating and hooting calls, which are hardly bird-like in tone. It is particularly noisy during the breeding season. Despite being clumsy in flight it can fly long distances, and it is a good swimmer, especially for a bird without webbed feet.

The Purple Swamphen is occasionally recorded as an escape from captivity in Britain and elsewhere. An introduced population exists in Florida, though state wildlife biologists are trying to eradicate the birds.

The Purple Swamphen was introduced to North America in the late 1990s due to avicultural escapes in the Pembroke Pines, Florida area. The birds multiplied and can now be found in many areas of southern Florida. Ornithological authorities consider it likely that the swamphen will become an established part of Florida’s avifauna.

The Florida birds are mostly or entirely of the gray-headed race poliocephalus, native to the area around the Caspian Sea.

The most common call from the Florida birds is a loud, high-pitched “creek,” often doubled.

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White Swamphen (Lord Howe) (Porphyrio albus) † Extinct ©WikiC

White Swamphen (Lord Howe) (Porphyrio albus) † Extinct ©WikiC

The Lord Howe Swamphen or White Gallinule, Porphyrio albus, was a large bird in the family Rallidae endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia. It was similar to the Purple Swamphen, but with shorter and more robust legs and toes. Its plumage was white, sometimes with a few blue feathers, and it was probably flightless, like its other close relative the Takahe. Similar, entirely blue birds were also described, but it is not clear if they belong to this species or are simply Purple Swamphens (which can also be found on the island). The feathers on the two extant skins are white.

This bird was first described by John White in his Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales (1790), which also contained an illustration. It was not uncommon when the bird was first described, but was soon hunted to extinction by whalers and sailors.
There are two skins of the bird in existence, one in the collection of the World Museum in Liverpool and the other in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien in Vienna. There are also several paintings, and some subfossil bones.
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Mohoau (Porphyrio mantelli) † Extinct (North Island Takahē) ©WikiC

Mohoau (Porphyrio mantelli) † Extinct (North Island Takahē) ©WikiC

The North Island Takahē or Mōho, or Mohoau (Porphyrio mantelli) is an extinct rail that was found in the North Island of New Zealand. This flightless species is known from subfossils from a number of archeological sites and from one possible 1894 record (Phillipps, 1959). It appeared to have been even larger than the South Island Takahē and, if it did survive until the 1890s, would have been the largest rail in historic times. The decline of the species has generally been attributed to the increasing incursion of forest into the alpine grasslands through the Holocene, although hunting by the Māori also played a major role.

Traditionally the North Island Takahē was considered conspecific with the threatened South Island Takahe P. hochstetteri. Trewick (1996) presented evidence that the two taxa were independently derived from flying ancestors, so proved to be separate species.
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Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) by Nick Talbot

Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) by Nick Talbot

The Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri) or South Island Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri) is a flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand and belonging to the rail family. It was thought to be extinct after the last four known specimens were taken in 1898. However, after a carefully planned search effort the bird was rediscovered by Geoffrey Orbell near Lake Te Anau in the Murchison Mountains, South Island, on 20 November 1948.

The Takahē is the largest living member of the Rallidae family. Its overall length averages 63 cm (24.8 in) and its average weight is about 2.7 kg (6 lbs) in males and 2.3 kg (5 lb) in females, ranging from 1.8-4.2 kg (4-9.2 lbs).  The standing height is around 50 cm (20 in). It is a stocky bird, with reduced wings, strong legs and a massive bill.

The adult Takahē is mainly purple-blue in colour, with a greenish back and inner wings. It has a red frontal shield and red-based pink bill. The legs are pink. This is a noisy species with a loud clowp call. Contact call is easely confused with that of the Weka (Gallirallus australis), but is generally more resonant and deeper.
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Allen's Gallinule (Porphyrio alleni) ©WikiC

Allen’s Gallinule (Porphyrio alleni) ©WikiC

The Allen’s Gallinule (Porphyrio alleni), formerly known as the Lesser Gallinule is a small waterbird of the family Rallidae. Its former binomial name is Porphyrula alleni.
Its breeding habitat is marshes and lakes in sub-Saharan Africa. They build a floating nest in marshes and swamps, laying 2-5 eggs. This species is partially migratory, undertaking seasonal movements.
Remarkably, this apparently weakly flying bird is not only the only species with a purely sub-Saharan African range to have reached Great Britain, but has done so twice. It has also occurred as a vagrant in several other European countries.

They are similar in size to the only slightly larger Water Rail. The Allen’s Gallinule has a short red bill, greenish back and purple upperparts. They have red legs with long toes, and a short tail which is white with a dark central bar underneath. Breeding males have a blue frontal shield, which is green in the female. Immature Allen’s Gallinules are sandy brown with a buff undertail. The downy chicks are black, as with all rails.
These birds probe with their bill in mud or shallow water, also picking up food by sight. They mainly eat insects and aquatic animals. They nod their heads as they swim.

Allen’s Gallinules are very secretive in the breeding season, particularly in the dense swamps they favour, and are mostly heard rather than seen. They are then rather noisy birds, with a sharp nasal pruk call. They can be easier to see on migration or when wintering.

This bird is named after British naval officer Rear-Admiral William Allen (1770-1843).

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Framed Purple Gallinule by Dan

Framed Purple Gallinule by Dan

The (American) Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinicus) is a “swamp hen” in the rail family Rallidae. This is a medium-sized rail, measuring 26–37 cm (10–15 in) in length, spanning 50–61 cm (20–24 in) across the wings and weighing 141–305 g (5.0–10.8 oz). Males, averaging 257 g (9.1 oz) in mass, are slightly larger than females, at 215 g (7.6 oz) on average. The adult Purple gallinule has big yellow feet, purple-blue plumage with a green back, and red and yellow bill. It has a pale blue forehead shield and white undertail. Darkness or low light can dim the bright purple-blue plumage of the adult to make them look dusky or brownish, although the forehead shield color differentiates them from similar species such as Common Gallinules.

Juveniles are brown overall with a brownish olive back. These gallinules will fly short distances with dangling legs. Their breeding habitat is warm swamps and marshes in southeastern states of the United States and the tropical regions of Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America. This species is resident in southern Florida and the tropics, but most American birds are migratory, wintering south to Argentina. The nest is a floating structure in a marsh. Five to ten eggs are laid. Their coloration is buff with brown spots.

The diet of these rails is omnivorous, being known to include a wide variety of plant and animal matter, including seeds, leaves and fruits of both aquatic and terrestrial plants, as well as insects, frogs, snails, spiders, earthworms and fish. They have also been known to eat the eggs and young of other birds.

This species is a very rare vagrant to western Europe and southwestern Africa. There is a similar species in southern Europe, the Purple Swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio, but that bird is much larger.

This species is sometimes referred to by the alternative name, Yellow-legged Gallinule.
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Azure Gallinule (Porphyrio flavirostris) ©Arthur Grosset

Azure Gallinule (Porphyrio flavirostris) ©Arthur Grosset

The Azure Gallinule (Porphyrio flavirostris) is a species of bird in the Rallidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela.

The bill and frontal shield is a pale greenish-yellow.The wing coverts are greenish-blue while the back and tail are browner. The throat and underparts are white while the legs are yellow.

It is found in freshwater marshes where there is floating vegetation and this includes marshy edges of rivers and lakes. Nest is an open cup of leaves concealed in dense marsh vegetation. Clutch size is 4-5 eggs, incubated by both parents. Diet consists of invertebrates, insects and seeds taken from water and vegetation. Climbs in reed stems to bend them over water to pick up food.
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White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) by Nikhil Devasar

White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) by Nikhil Devasar

The White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) is a waterbird of the rail and crake family Rallidae that is widely distributed across Southeast Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. They are dark slaty birds with a clean white face, breast and belly. They are somewhat bolder than most other rails and are often seen stepping slowly with their tail cocked upright in open marshes or even drains near busy roads. They are largely crepuscular in activity and during the breeding season, just after the first rains, make loud and repetitive croaking calls.

Adult White-breasted Waterhens have mainly dark grey upperparts and flanks, and a white face, neck and breast. The lower belly and undertail are cinnamon coloured. The body is flattened laterally to allow easier passage through the reeds or undergrowth. They have long toes, a short tail and a yellow bill and legs. Sexes are similar but females measure slightly smaller. Immature birds are much duller versions of the adults. The downy chicks are black, as with all rails.

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The other reference to the Porphyrion is found in Deuteronomy 14:16 with that list of unclean birds. Again, the translations give a wide variation in which bird is meant. Swan, owl, water-hen,

The little owl and the great owl and the water-hen; (Deuteronomy 14:16 BBE)

the little owl and the great owl, the water hen (Deuteronomy 14:16 NRSVA)

and G2532 heronG2064.1 and G2532 swanG2945.2 and G2532 ibisG2395.1 (Deuteronomy 14:16 ABP+)

The little owl, the great owl, the horned owl, (Deuteronomy 14:16 AMP)

The litle Owle, the great Owle, nor the Redshanke. (Deuteronomy 14:16 Bishops)

Neither the litle owle, nor the great owle, nor the redshanke, (Deuteronomy 14:16 Geneva)

and the heron, and the swan, and the stork, (Deuteronomy 14:16 Brenton)

herodium ac cygnum, et ibin, (Deuteronomy 14:16 clVulgate) (Cygnus is the Latin word for swan, the romanized form of the ancient Greek κύκνος (kyknos) “swan”.)
the little owl, and the eared owl, and the barn owl, (Deuteronomy 14:16 LITV-TSP)

The little owl, and the great owl, and the swan, (Deuteronomy 14:16 KJV)

(H853) The little owl,H3563 and the great owl,H3244 and the swan,H8580 (Deuteronomy 14:16 KJV+)

the little H3563b owl H3563b, the N1great H3244 owl H3244, the white H8580 owl H8580, (Deuteronomy 14:16 NASB+) (This translation of H8580 amazes me. They translate it white owl yet here is what it says in H8580)

H8580 (Strong’s LXX)
תּנשׁמת
tanshemeth
tan-sheh’-meth
From H5395; properly a hard breather, that is, the name of two unclean creatures, a lizard and a bird (both perhaps from changing color through their irascibility), probably the tree toad and the water hen: – mole, swan.

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But, if you look at some of the others:

H8580 (Brown-Driver-Briggs)
תּנשׁמת
tanshemeth
BDB Definition:
1) an unclean animal of some kind
1a) an unclean bird
1a1) perhaps the ibis, water-hen, species of owl, barn owl
1b) an unclean lizard
1b1) perhaps the chameleon
1c) perhaps an extinct lizard or bird, exact meaning unknown
Part of Speech: noun feminine
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H5395
Same Word by TWOT Number: 1433b

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H8580 (This is a combo of many BTSCTVM+)

- Original: תּנשׁמת
– Transliteration: Tanshemeth
– Phonetic: tan-sheh’-meth
– Definition:
1. an unclean animal of some kind
a. an unclean bird
1. perhaps the ibis, water-hen, species of owl, barn owl
b. an unclean lizard
1. perhaps the chameleon
c. perhaps an extinct lizard or bird, exact meaning unknown
– Origin: from H5395
– TWOT entry: 1433b
– Part(s) of speech: Noun Feminine

- Strong’s: From H5395; properly a hard breather that is the name of two unclean creatures a lizard and a bird (both perhaps from changing color through their irascibility) probably the tree toad and the water hen: – mole swan.
Total KJV Occurrences: 3
• mole, 1
Lev_11:30

• swan, 2
Lev_11:18; Deu_14:16

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Well, I don’t know about you, but I still don’t have a definite answer. Though, isn’t it enjoyable to study God’s Word. Like it was posted before, what ever bird it was is not as important as the obedience that was involved. They knew which birds they were not to eat and they were expected to obey. Today, when we read the Bible, we come across clear commands and we are expected to obey. (Bonus – I was birdwatching in Scripture)

And Samuel said, Hath the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams. (1 Samuel 15:22 KJV)

Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness? (Romans 6:16 KJV)

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See also:

Birds of the Bible

Birds of the Bible – Water-hen

Birds of the Bible – Swans

Birds of the World – Rallidae – Rails, Crakes & Coots

List of animals in the Bible – Wikipedia

Porphyrion (Greek Mythology) – Wikipedia

(Information from Wikipedia and other internet sources, plus the e-Sword program)

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Birds of the Bible – Names of Birds Study – Preparation

Where do we start? (See the Introduction to this study) I personally just re-read the following articles:

I had forgotten that I have been so busy. This is being composed as I am doing my study and will describe my actions as I do them. My e-Sword program is running, plus I have the internet available. There are other great Bible programs out there, but e-Sword is easy to use and it’s free. I have purchased some various versions and commentaries to use with over the years. Also, if you go to the Links section of e-Sword, there you will find places for more additions to add to your e-Sword program. My favorite is Bible Support.

List of all my Bibles in e-Sword

List of all my Bibles in e-Sword

Needless to say, I don’t use them all, but like to have them for when I compare the different versions as you have read in other articles.

Menu Bar for e-Sword

Menu Bar for e-Sword

This is the best place to start. The menu bar has the Binoculars close to the center of the photo. (All true birdwatchers know what those are) When the Search (binocular) is pressed a dialog box pops up. I put in “bird name” and then pressed the “OK” button. Here is what comes up.

Bible Search - bird name

Bible Search – bird name

When I did that first with the KJV nothing came up because that verse uses “fowl” not “bird” so the NKJV was selected and this is the result. The first place where birds were named and by whom.

Out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and brought them to Adam to see what he would call them. And whatever Adam called each living creature, that was its name. (Genesis 2:19 NKJV)

Using compare opens with all the different versions showing that verse. The KJV+ in the photo shows the Strong’s numbers and when the mouse is placed on the numbers a box appears. Now you can see the words in the original languages. If we are going to study about the different names for the clean and unclean birds and other birds throughout the Bible, this will be very handy. Whether you are studying about birds or whatever, this is very useful.

Compare of Genesis 2:19 with Hebrew 5775 for fowl open.

Compare of Genesis 2:19 with Hebrew 5775 for fowl open.

Okay for now. If you do not have a Bible program, try loading one and you can always use e-Sword. There are other Bible programs for the Tablets that will let you do searches also. I also have Study Bibles and my Bird Books handy. Get prepared and this will be continued. Don’t forget to ask for the Lord’s help.

In the mean time, my real binoculars are calling to me to aim them at some birds.

Birds of the Bible – Names of Birds Study Introduction

Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)  by AestheticPhotos

Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) by AestheticPhotos

There have been several articles here about the Names of the Birds. See:

Now we are going to look at the Names of the Birds from another angle. I received this comment on the Clean vs Unclean blog.

Lee, my search on the topic of clean and unclean birds led met to a Wikipedia article and I discovered that when you look at the Hebrew words (found in the Masoretic text) for the names of various unclean birds, they sound like descriptions, ex. “bone breaker”, “plunger”, “one who darts”, and even “vomiting”. So perhaps the reason we don’t have “clear rules” listed (something I’ve wondered for a long time) is because the traits and characteristics were there all along, but not knowing Hebrew, we had no idea. Anyway, check it out   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosher_animals#Birds

It is a very interesting article and will take some digging to discover some more insight into these birds and how they are named. If you have been following this blog, you know that it has been curious to me how the different versions of the Bible have given different names for the birds. Maybe we can solve some of those mysteries. It won’t be done in one article. That is for sure.

First let’s look at some highlights from the Wikipedia article (with editing).

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Great Horned Owl - Lowry Pk Zoo by Lee

Great Horned Owl – Lowry Pk Zoo by Lee

Birds

In regard to birds, no general rule is given, and instead Leviticus 11:13-19 and Deuteronomy 14:11-18 explicitly list the prohibited birds: The masoretic text lists the birds as:

  • nesher
  • peres (bone breaker)
  • ozniyah (feminine form of oz, meaning strong)
  • ra’ah ([that which] darts, in the sense of rapid)
  • ayyah
  • oreb
  • bat yaanah (daughter of howling)
  • tahmas ([one who] scratches the face)
  • shahaf ([one which] atrophies)
  • netz
  • kos (cup)
  • shalak (plunger)
  • yanshuf (twilight)
  • tinshemet (blower/breather)
  • qa’at (vomiting)
  • racham (tenderness/affection)
  • hasidah (devoted)
  • anafah ([one which] sniffs sharply, in the sense of anger)
  • dukifat
  • atalef

The list in Deuteronomy has an additional bird, the dayyah, which seems to be a combination of da’ah and ayyah, and may be a scribal error; the Talmud regards it as a duplication of ayyah. This, and the other terms are vague and difficult to translate, but there are a few further descriptions, of some of these birds, elsewhere in the Bible:

  • The ayyah is mentioned again in the Book of Job, where it is used to describe a bird distinguished by its particularly good sight.
  • The bat yaanah is described by the Book of Isaiah as living in desolate places, and the Book of Micah states that it emits a mournful cry
  • The qa’at appears in the Book of Zephaniah, where it is portrayed as nesting on the columns of a ruined city; the Book of Isaiah identifies it as possessing a marshy and desolate kingdom.
  • The septuagint versions of the lists are more helpful, as in almost all cases the bird is clearly identifiable:
Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo (Coccyzus pluvialis) ©WikiC

Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo (Coccyzus pluvialis) ©WikiC

  • aeton (eagle)
  • grypa (ossifrage)
  • haliaetos (sea-eagle)
  • gyps (vulture)
  • ictinia (kite)
  • corax (raven)
  • stouthios (ostrich)
  • glaux (owl)
  • laros (gull)
  • hierax (hawk)
  • nycticorax (night raven)
  • cataractes (cormorant)
  • porphyrion (“purple [thing]“)
  • cycnos (swan)
  • ibis
  • pelican
  • charadrios (plover)
  • herodios (heron)
  • epops (hoopoe)
  • nycturia (bat)
  • meleagris (guineafowl)

Although the first ten of the birds identified by the Septuagint seem to fit the descriptions of the masoretic text, the ossifrage (Latin for bone breaker) being a good example, the correspondence is less clear for most of the remaining birds; it is also obvious that the list in Leviticus, or the list in Deuteronomy, or both, are in a different order in the Septuagint, compared to the masoretic text. Attempting to determine the correspondence is problematic; for example, the pelican may correspond to qa’at (vomiting), in reference to the pelican’s characteristic behaviour, but it may also correspond to kos (cup), as a reference to the pelican’s jaw pouch. An additional complexity arises from the fact that the porphyrion has not yet been identified, and classical Greek literature merely identifies a number of species that are not the porphyrion, including the peacock, grouse, and robin, and implies that the porphyrion is the cousin of the kingfisher; from these meagre clarifications, the porphyrion can only be identified as anything from the Lilac-breasted Roller, Indian Roller, or Northern Carmine Bee-eater, to the flamingo.

During the Middle Ages, classical descriptions of the hoopoe were mistaken for descriptions of the lapwing, on account of the lapwing’s prominent crest, and the hoopoe’s rarity in England, resulting in lapwing being listed in certain bible translations instead of hoopoe; similarly the sea eagle has historically been confused with the osprey, and translations have often used the latter bird in place of the former. Because strouthos (ostrich) was also used in Greek for the sparrow, a few translations have placed the sparrow among the list. In Arabic, the Egyptian Vulture is often referred to as rachami, and therefore a number of translations render racham as gier eagle, the old name for the Egyptian Vulture.

Variations arise when translations follow other ancient versions of the Bible, rather than the Septuagint, where they differ. Rather than vulture (gyps), the Vulgate has milvus, meaning Red Kite, which historically has been called the glede, on account of its gliding flight; similarly, the Syriac Peshitta has owl rather than ibis. Other variations arise from attempting to base translations primarily on the masoretic text; these translations generally interpret some of the more ambiguous birds as being various different kinds of vulture and owl. All of these variations mean that most translations arrive at a list of 20 birds from among the following (links are to articles already written here):

Lilac-breasted Roller (Coracias caudatus) by Bob-Nan

Lilac-breasted Roller (Coracias caudatus) by Bob-Nan

The fruit bat, a frugivorous vegetarian species of bat, eating some fruit

Despite being listed among the birds by the bible, bats are not birds, and are in fact mammals. Most of the remaining animals on the list are either birds of prey or birds living on water, and the majority of the latter in the list also eat fish or other seafood. The Septuagint’s version of the list comprehensively lists most of the birds of Canaan that fall into these categories. The conclusion of modern scholars is that, generally, ritually unclean birds were those clearly observed to eat other animals.

Although it does regard all birds of prey as being forbidden, the Talmud is uncertain of there being a general rule, and instead gives detailed descriptions of the features that distinguish a bird as being ritually clean. The Talmud argues that clean birds would have craws, an easily separated double-skin, and would eat food by placing it on the ground (rather than holding it on the ground) and tearing it with their bills before eating it; however, the Talmud also argues that only the birds in the biblical list are actually forbidden – these distinguishing features were only for cases when there was any uncertainty in the bird’s identity

Origin

The earliest rationalistic explanations of the laws against eating certain birds focused on symbolic interpretations; the first indication of this view can be found in the 1st century BC Letter of Aristeas, which argues that this prohibition is a lesson to teach justice, and is also about not injuring others. Such allegorical explanations were abandoned by most Jewish and Christian theologians after a few centuries, and later writers instead sought to find medical explanations for the rules; Nachmanides, for example, claimed that the black and thickened blood of birds of prey would cause psychological damage, making people much more inclined to cruelty.

However, other cultures treated the meat of certain carnivorous birds as having medical benefits, the Romans viewing Owl meat as being able to ease the pain of insect bites, for example; conversely, modern scientific studies have discovered very toxic birds such as the Pitohui, which are neither birds of prey nor water birds, and therefore the biblical regulations allow them to be eaten. Laws against eating any carnivorous birds also existed in Vedic India and Harran, and the Egyptian priests also refused to eat carnivorous birds.

Modern practical considerations

Due to the difficulty of identification, religious authorities have restricted consumption to specific birds for which Jews have passed down a tradition or permissibility from generation to generation. Birds for whom there has been a tradition of their being kosher include: the sparrow, pigeon, turtle dove, quail, the European and Middle Eastern partridges, the pheasant, ducks, geese, chickens, guineafowl among others. As a general principle, scavenging birds such as vultures and birds of prey such as hawks and eagles (which eat carrion when they find it) are not kosher. Turkey does not have a tradition, but because so many Orthodox Jews have come to eat it and it possesses the simanim (signs) required to render it a kosher bird, an exception is made, but with all other birds a Mesorah (tradition) is required.

Birds such as songbirds, which are consumed as delicacies in many societies, may be kosher in theory, but are not eaten in kosher homes as there is no tradition of them being eaten as such. Pigeons and doves are known to be kosher based on their permissible status as sacrificial offerings in the Temple. Likewise, though swans are kosher in theory if kosher-slaughtered, there is no Jewish tradition of eating them. (from Wikipedia)

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Second,  Study is not necessarily a weariness as Ecclesiastes 12:12 says,

And further, by these, my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh. (KJV)

but we should study and even enjoy digging into God’s Word.

Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. (2 Timothy 2:15 KJV)

I am going to use my e-Sword program. If you have not used it, it is free and very useful. It has the KJV+ as part of it and it list the Greek and Hebrew words with their definitions. Will you join me in studying about the bird names in the languages of the Bible. Join me as we look at these words and compare them to the birds. Don’t let those weird-looking words scare you. You might find that learning to study about birds, might help you carry the method into studying more of God Word.

Look for future articles in this series.

P.S. A Lilac-breasted Roller is new to me. I can’t wait to find out the connection there.
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Birds of the Bible

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Birds of the Bible – Jeremiah 8:7

Wood Stork with landing gear down

Wood Stork with landing gear down

Jeremiah 8:7 has been used in several Birds of the Bible articles before. See Birds of the Bible:

So what else can be found out about that verse? Those of you that follow this blog know that I enjoy digging into the Bible with my e-Sword program. It is a free program that can be downloaded. It has different versions of the Bible that can be downloaded free or some with a small fee. Also available are dictionaries, commentaries, maps, notes, references and STEP additions. For the price, FREE, it is hard to beat. There are also links to other sites to get even more add-ons. Check out their LINKS page. Two favorites of mine are the ESS and the Bible Support sites.

The Bible tells us to study the Bible and we should. I try to read several chapters every day and meditate on what I read. Then along with that I like to dig deeper into Scripture and mine some great promises and truths out. Then other times, like this article, I am just digging out the birds mentioned in the different versions of this verse. I don’t endorse every version I have loaded on my e-Sword, but I do like to compare all of them.

But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them; And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works. (2 Timothy 3:14-17 KJV)

Well, back to Jeremiah 8:7. Here’s the verse:

Yea, the stork in the heaven knoweth her appointed times; and the turtle and the crane and the swallow observe the time of their coming; but my people know not the judgment of the LORD. (Jeremiah 8:7 KJV)

Using the “Compare” mode, let’s see which birds are mentioned. Most mention the Stork, Turtle or Turtle-dove, Swallow, and the Crane. It is referring to them having the knowledge to know when to migrate, but “but my people know not the rules of the LORD.” (ESV) See the other articles for more details.

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Black-necked Stork (Jabiru) (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus) by Ian

Black-necked Stork (Jabiru) (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus) by Ian

The H####’s are from Strong’s Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries. Using the KJV+ for the numbers.
H2624
חסידה
chăsı̂ydâh
khas-ee-daw’
Feminine of H2623; the kind (maternal) bird, that is, a stork: – X feather, stork.

Stork or storks – every version except two – DRB (kite), MSG (see bottom)
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Adamawa Turtle Dove (Streptopelia hypopyrrha) ©WikiC

Adamawa Turtle Dove (Streptopelia hypopyrrha) ©WikiC

H8449
תּר תּור
tôr tôr
tore, tore
Probably the same as H8447; a ring dove, often (figuratively) as a term of endearment: – (turtle) dove.

Dove, Turtle, Turtle-doves, Mourning Doves - same family, no problem
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Welcome Swallow (Hirundo neoxena) by Ian

Welcome Swallow (Hirundo neoxena) by Ian

H5693
עגוּר
‛âgûr
aw-goor’
Passive participle (but with active sense) of an unused root meaning to twitter; probably the swallow: – swallow.

Swallow – most versions
Swift – instead of Swift – ERV, NASB, NAS77, NIV, NIrV
Swift and Swallow – NKJV
The Swift and the Swallow both behave alike in some ways even though they are not in the same family. I even confuse them at times.
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Crane Migration over Israel

Crane Migration over Israel

H5483
סס סוּס
sûs sûs
soos, soos
From an unused root meaning to skip (properly for joy); a horse (as leaping); also a swallow (from its rapid flight): – crane, horse ([-back, -hoof]).
Now we see where two different birds could be used. From here on the different versions begin to differ.

Crane – Most use Crane, but here are some of the differences
Sparrows – APB, Brenton
Thrushes – CEV, ERV, ECB, GNB, LITV, NAS77, NASB
Quite a difference in the birds here.
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Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) by S Slayton

Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) by S Slayton

I saved the most interesting translation till last. Actually, it is a paraphrase and not a true translation. It does give me three more named birds. So far I haven’t seen them anywhere else, so for now they will not get their own page.

Cranes know when it’s time to move south for winter. And robins, warblers, and bluebirds know when it’s time to come back again. But my people? My people know nothing, not the first thing of GOD and his rule. (Jeremiah 8:7 MSG)

Does it matter if there is a difference in these versions? Yes and no. Yes, the Bible should be translated as close to the original as possible. No, in the sense that all these birds were given the knowledge to migrate by the Lord. And the truth of people not knowing the truth about God and what He wants for their lives. The birds obey, man doesn’t.

See More Birds of the Bible

Thought:

The method I used to study this verse can be applied to any verse or passage you wish to dig into. I used the Strong’s Hebrew and Greek because, of course, I have no clue as to what those word are. But using those help me/you understand the meaning of the word as it was originally written or as close as we can get to it. As our language has changed over the years, our meanings have also changed. It helps to read other versions when studying the Bible. I know some don’t agree and I won’t go there. The Lord has many truths to find in His Word. Maybe you like plants or animals, or like to study one person at a time, or a promise and the different ways it is presented, whatever. Study.

Gospel Message

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