Picidae – Woodpeckers

Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) by Reinier Munguia

Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) by Reinier Munguia

If a bird’s nest chance to be before thee in the way in any tree, or on the ground, whether they be young ones, or eggs, and the dam sitting upon the young, or upon the eggs, thou shalt not take the dam with the young: (Deuteronomy 22:6 KJV)

CLASS – AVES, Order – PICIFORMES, Family – Picidae – Woodpeckers

Latest I.O.C. Version
Species (236)

Eurasian Wryneck (Jynx torquilla) by Nikhil
Red-throated Wryneck (Jynx ruficollis) by BirdPhotos
____ (Jynx ruficollis ruficollis) by BirdPhotos
Speckled Piculet (Picumnus innominatus) by CFrancis
Bar-breasted Piculet (Picumnus aurifrons) WorldBirds
Lafresnaye’s Piculet (Picumnus lafresnayi) IBC
Orinoco Piculet (Picumnus pumilus) IBC
Golden-spangled Piculet (Picumnus exilis) ©©Gjofili
Black-dotted Piculet (Picumnus nigropunctatus) IBC
Ecuadorian Piculet (Picumnus sclateri) WorldBirds
Scaled Piculet (Picumnus squamulatus) ©©
White-bellied Piculet (Picumnus spilogaster) IBC
Arrowhead Piculet (Picumnus minutissimus) IBC
Spotted Piculet (Picumnus pygmaeus) IBC
Speckle-chested Piculet (Picumnus steindachneri) ©Drawing WikiC
Varzea Piculet (Picumnus varzeae) IBC
White-barred Piculet (Picumnus cirratus) ©©LeeKip
____ (Picumnus cirratus cirratus) by BirdPhotos
____ (Picumnus cirratus pilcomayensis) by BirdPhotos
Ocellated Piculet (Picumnus dorbignyanus) ©Drawing WikiC
Ochre-collared Piculet (Picumnus temminckii) by Dario Sanches
White-wedged Piculet (Picumnus albosquamatus) ©©WagnerMCL
____ (Picumnus albosquamatus albosquamatus) by BirdPhotos
Rusty-necked Piculet (Picumnus fuscus) Twearth
Rufous-breasted Piculet (Picumnus rufiventris) IBC
Ochraceous Piculet (Picumnus limae) IBC
Tawny Piculet (Picumnus fulvescens)
Mottled Piculet (Picumnus nebulosus) ©©CTimm
Plain-breasted Piculet (Picumnus castelnau) Neotropical Birds
Fine-barred Piculet (Picumnus subtilis) IBC
Olivaceous Piculet (Picumnus olivaceus) IBC
Greyish Piculet (Picumnus granadensis) by BirdPhotos
____ (Picumnus granadensis antioquensis) by BirdPhotos
Chestnut Piculet (Picumnus cinnamomeus) IBC
African Piculet (Sasia africana) IBC
Rufous Piculet (Sasia abnormis) ©Drawing WikiC
White-browed Piculet (Sasia ochracea) IBC
Antillean Piculet (Nesoctites micromegas) IBC Video
Grey-and-buff Woodpecker (Hemicircus concretus) OBI
Heart-spotted Woodpecker (Hemicircus canente) by CFrancis
White Woodpecker (Melanerpes candidus) by BirdPhotos
Lewis’s Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) by BirdPhotos
Guadeloupe Woodpecker (Melanerpes herminieri) ©Drawing WikiC
Puerto Rican Woodpecker (Melanerpes portoricensis) ©WikiC
Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) by BirdPhotos – Video
Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) by Ray
____ (Melanerpes formicivorus flavigula) by BirdPhotos
Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus) IBC
Yellow-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes flavifrons) by BirdPhotos
Golden-naped Woodpecker (Melanerpes chrysauchen) ©Drawing WikiC
Beautiful Woodpecker (Melanerpes pulcher) ©Drawing WikiC
Black-cheeked Woodpecker (Melanerpes pucherani) by Reinier
White-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cactorum) ©WikiC
Hispaniolan Woodpecker (Melanerpes striatus) by BirdPhotos
Jamaican Woodpecker (Melanerpes radiolatus) ©WikiC
Golden-cheeked Woodpecker (Melanerpes chrysogenys) ©WikiC
Grey-breasted Woodpecker (Melanerpes hypopolius) ©WikiC
Yucatan Woodpecker (Melanerpes pygmaeus) by BirdPhotos
Red-crowned Woodpecker (Melanerpes rubricapillus) by Ian
Gila Woodpecker (Melanerpes uropygialis) by SSlayton
Hoffmann’s Woodpecker (Melanerpes hoffmannii) by Ian
Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes aurifrons) by DavesBP
Velasquez’s Woodpecker (Melanerpes santacruzi) IBC
Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) by Dan
West Indian Woodpecker (Melanerpes superciliaris) IBC
Williamson’s Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus) ©Drawing WikiC – Photo Dave’s BirdingPix
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius) by DavesBP – Article
Red-naped Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis) ©WikiC
Red-breasted Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus ruber) by Ian
Cuban Green Woodpecker (Xiphidiopicus percussus) ©WikiC
Fine-spotted Woodpecker (Campethera punctuligera) IBC
Bennett’s Woodpecker (Campethera bennettii) by BirdPhotos
____ (Campethera bennettii bennettii) by BirdPhotos
Speckle-throated Woodpecker (Campethera scriptoricauda) IBC
Nubian Woodpecker (Campethera nubica) ©WikiC
Golden-tailed Woodpecker (Campethera abingoni) by Daves BirdingPix
Mombasa Woodpecker (Campethera mombassica) ©WikiC
Knysna Woodpecker (Campethera notata) by BirdPhotos
Green-backed Woodpecker (Campethera cailliautii) WorldBirds
Little Green Woodpecker (Campethera maculosa) WorldBirds
Tullberg’s Woodpecker (Campethera tullbergi) IBC
Buff-spotted Woodpecker (Campethera nivosa) IBC
Brown-eared Woodpecker (Campethera caroli) IBC
Ground Woodpecker (Geocolaptes olivaceus) by BirdPhotos
Sulawesi Pygmy Woodpecker (Yungipicus temminckii) ©Drawing WikiC
Brown-capped Pygmy Woodpecker (Yungipicus nanus) by Nikhil
Grey-capped Pygmy Woodpecker (Yungipicus canicapillus) by BirdPhotos
Philippine Pygmy Woodpecker (Yungipicus maculatus) OBI
Sulu Pygmy Woodpecker (Yungipicus ramsayi) ©Drawing WikiC
Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker (Yungipicus moluccensis) ©WikiC
Japanese Pygmy Woodpecker (Yungipicus kizuki) ©WikiC
Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) ©Drawing WikiC
American Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides dorsalis) by DavesBP
Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) by Ian
Arabian Woodpecker (Dendrocoptes dorae) IBC Video
Brown-fronted Woodpecker (Dendrocoptes auriceps) by Nikhil
Middle Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocoptes medius) ©WikiC
Yellow-crowned Woodpecker (Leiopicus mahrattensis) by CFrancis
Bearded Woodpecker (Chloropicus namaquus) by DavesBP
Yellow-crested Woodpecker (Chloropicus xantholophus) IBC
Fire-bellied Woodpecker (Chloropicus pyrrhogaster) IBC
Little Grey Woodpecker (Dendropicos elachus) IBC
Speckle-breasted Woodpecker (Dendropicos poecilolaemus) IBC
Abyssinian Woodpecker (Dendropicos abyssinicus) ©WikiC
Cardinal Woodpecker (Dendropicos fuscescens) by DavesBP
____ (Dendropicos fuscescens fuscescens) by BirdPhotos
Gabon Woodpecker (Dendropicos gabonensis) ©Drawing WikiC
Melancholy Woodpecker (Dendropicos lugubris) ©Drawing WikiC
Stierling’s Woodpecker (Dendropicos stierlingi) IBC
Elliot’s Woodpecker (Dendropicos elliotii) WorldBirds
African Grey Woodpecker (Dendropicos goertae) ©WikiC
Eastern Grey Woodpecker (Dendropicos spodocephalus) IBC
Olive Woodpecker (Dendropicos griseocephalus) by BirdPhotos
____ (Dendropicos griseocephalus griseocephalus) by BirdPhotos
Brown-backed Woodpecker (Dendropicos obsoletus) IBC
Nuttall’s Woodpecker (Dryobates nuttallii) by Ian
Ladder-backed Woodpecker (Dryobates scalaris) by DavesBP
Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescens) by Africaddict
____ (Dryobates pubescens medianus) by BirdPhotos
Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Dryobates cathpharius) OBI
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (Dryobates minor) ©WikiC
Scarlet-backed Woodpecker (Veniliornis callonotus) ©Drawing WikiC
Yellow-vented Woodpecker (Veniliornis dignus) ©Drawing WikiC
Bar-bellied Woodpecker (Veniliornis nigriceps) ©Drawing WikiC
Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus) ©WikiC
____ (Veniliornis passerinus agilis) by BirdPhotos
____ (Veniliornis passerinus olivinus) by BirdPhotos
Dot-fronted Woodpecker (Veniliornis frontalis) IBC
White-spotted Woodpecker (Veniliornis spilogaster) ©WikiC
Checkered Woodpecker (Veniliornis mixtus) by DavesBP
Striped Woodpecker (Veniliornis lignarius) ©WikiC
Blood-colored Woodpecker (Veniliornis sanguineus) IBC
Red-rumped Woodpecker (Veniliornis kirkii) IBC
Red-stained Woodpecker (Veniliornis affinis) IBC
Choco Woodpecker (Veniliornis chocoensis) IBC
Golden-collared Woodpecker (Veniliornis cassini) IBC
Yellow-eared Woodpecker (Veniliornis maculifrons) ©WikiC
Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Leuconotopicus borealis) by DavesBP
Smoky-brown Woodpecker (Leuconotopicus fumigatus) by Michael Woodruff
Arizona Woodpecker (Leuconotopicus  arizonae) by BirdPhotos
____ (Leuconotopicus arizonae arizonae) by BirdPhotos
Strickland’s Woodpecker (Leuconotopicus stricklandi) IBC
Hairy Woodpecker (Leuconotopicus villosus) by DavesBP
____ (Leuconotopicus villosus villosus) by BirdPhotos
White-headed Woodpecker (Leuconotopicus albolarvatus) by Ian
Rufous-bellied Woodpecker (Dendrocopos hyperythrus) by Nikhil
Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos macei) ©WikiC
Freckle-breasted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos analis) by BirdPhotos
____ (Dendrocopos analis longipennis) by BirdPhotos
Stripe-breasted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos atratus) OBI
Darjeeling Woodpecker (Dendrocopos darjellensis) OBI
Himalayan Woodpecker (Dendrocopos himalayensis) by Nikhil
Sind Woodpecker (Dendrocopos assimilis) OBI
Syrian Woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus) ©WikiC
White-winged Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucopterus) ©WikiC
Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) by BirdPhotos
____ (Dendrocopos major major) by BirdPhotos
Okinawa Woodpecker (Dendrocopos noguchii) ©Drawing WikiC
White-backed Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos) ©WikiC
Rufous-winged Woodpecker (Piculus simplex) ©WikiC
Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker (Piculus callopterus) ©WikiC
White-throated Woodpecker (Piculus leucolaemus) IBC
Lita Woodpecker (Piculus litae) IBC
Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula) IBC
Golden-green Woodpecker (Piculus chrysochloros) by Ian
____ (Piculus chrysochloros chrysochloros) by BirdPhotos
Yellow-browed Woodpecker (Piculus aurulentus) by BirdPhotos
Golden-olive Woodpecker (Colaptes rubiginosus) by DavesBP
____ (Colaptes rubiginosus tucumanus) by BirdPhotos
Grey-crowned Woodpecker (Colaptes auricularis) ©Drawing WikiC – Photo IBC
Bronze-winged Woodpecker (Colaptes aeruginosus) Posterlounge
Crimson-mantled Woodpecker (Colaptes rivolii) by BirdPhotos
____ (Colaptes rivolii quindiuna) by BirdPhotos
Black-necked Woodpecker (Colaptes atricollis) ©WikiC
Spot-breasted Woodpecker (Colaptes punctigula) by BirdPhotos
Green-barred Woodpecker (Colaptes melanochloros) by Dario Sanches
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) ©WikiC
____ (Colaptes auratus auratus) by BirdPhotos
Gilded Flicker (Colaptes chrysoides) ©WikiC
Bermuda Flicker (Colaptes oceanicus) ††
Fernandina’s Flicker (Colaptes fernandinae) ©WikiC
Chilean Flicker (Colaptes pitius) ©WikiC
Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola) ©WikiC
Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) by Dario Sanches
____ (Colaptes campestris campestroides) by BirdPhotos
Cinnamon Woodpecker (Celeus loricatus) by BirdPhotos
____ (Celeus loricatus mentalis) by BirdPhotos
Waved Woodpecker (Celeus undatus) IBC
Scaly-breasted Woodpecker (Celeus grammicus) IBC
Chestnut-colored Woodpecker (Celeus castaneus) by Michael Woodruff
Chestnut Woodpecker (Celeus elegans) ©WikiC
Pale-crested Woodpecker (Celeus lugubris) ©Drawing WikiC
Blond-crested Woodpecker (Celeus flavescens) ©WikiC
Ochre-backed Woodpecker (Celeus ochraceus) (3.5)
Cream-colored Woodpecker (Celeus flavus) by BirdPhotos
____ (Celeus flavus flavus) by BirdPhotos
Rufous-headed Woodpecker (Celeus spectabilis) ©WikiC
Kaempfer’s Woodpecker (Celeus obrieni) IBC
Ringed Woodpecker (Celeus torquatus) IBC
Helmeted Woodpecker (Celeus galeatus) IBC
Black-bodied Woodpecker (Dryocopus schulzii) by BirdPhotos
Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) by Michael Woodruff
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) – Article
____ (Dryocopus pileatus pileatus) by BirdPhotos
White-bellied Woodpecker (Dryocopus javensis) ©WikiC
Andaman Woodpecker (Dryocopus hodgei) ©WikiC
Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) with Young ©WikiC
____ (Dryocopus martius martius) by BirdPhotos
Powerful Woodpecker (Campephilus pollens) IBC
____ (Campephilus pollens pollens)Video IBC
Crimson-bellied Woodpecker (Campephilus haematogaster) IBC
____ (Campephilus haematogaster splendens) IBC
____ (Campephilus haematogaster haematogaster) IBC
Red-necked Woodpecker (Campephilus rubricollis) IBC – Video by Keith Blomerley
____ (Campephilus rubricollis rubricollis)Video IBC
Robust Woodpecker (Campephilus robustus) ©WikiC
Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Campephilus melanoleucos) by Ian
____ (Campephilus melanoleucos malherbii) Video IBC
____ (Campephilus melanoleucos melanoleucos) IBC – Video IBC
Pale-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus guatemalensis) ©WikiC – Article
____ (Campephilus guatemalensis guatemalensis) IBC
Guayaquil Woodpecker (Campephilus gayaquilensis) by BirdPhotos
Cream-backed Woodpecker (Campephilus leucopogon) IBC – ©Drawing WikiC
Magellanic Woodpecker (Campephilus magellanicus) ©WikiC
Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) ©WikiC
Imperial Woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) Specimen ©WikiC
____Cuban Imperial Woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis bairdii) ©WikiC
Banded Woodpecker (Chrysophlegma miniaceum) ©WikiC
Checker-throated Woodpecker (Chrysophlegma mentale) ©WikiC
Greater Yellownape (Chrysophlegma flavinucha) by CFrancis
Lesser Yellownape (Picus chlorolophus) by CFrancis
Crimson-winged Woodpecker (Picus puniceus) OBI – Video by Wondersf
Streak-breasted Woodpecker (Picus viridanus) ©Drawing WikiC
Laced Woodpecker (Picus vittatus) by Ian
Streak-throated Woodpecker (Picus xanthopygaeus) by CFrancis
Scaly-bellied Woodpecker (Picus squamatus) ©WikiC
Japanese Green Woodpecker (Picus awokera) ©WikiC
European Green Woodpecker (Picus viridis) ©WikiC
European Green Woodpecker (Picus viridis) (3.5)
Levaillant’s Woodpecker (Picus vaillantii) ©WikiC
Red-collared Woodpecker (Picus rabieri) OBI
Black-headed Woodpecker (Picus erythropygius) ©WikiC
Grey-headed Woodpecker (Picus canus) by Nikhil
____ (Picus canus canus) by BirdPhotos
Olive-backed Woodpecker (Dinopium rafflesii) ©WikiC
Himalayan Flameback (Dinopium shorii) ©WikiC
Common Flameback (Dinopium javanense) by Ian
Spot-throated Flameback (Dinopium everetti) Birdingmakiling
Black-rumped Flameback (Dinopium benghalense) by Nikhi
Red-backed Flameback (Dinopium psarodes)
Buff-spotted Flameback (Chrysocolaptes lucidus) WorldBirds
Luzon Flameback (Chrysocolaptes haematribon) IBC Video
Yellow-faced Flameback (Chrysocolaptes xanthocephalus) Twearth
Red-headed Flameback (Chrysocolaptes erythrocephalus) Birdingmakiling
Javan Flameback (Chrysocolaptes strictus) BirdForum
Greater Flameback (Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus) by Ian
Crimson-backed Flameback (Chrysocolaptes stricklandi) ©©AvishkaD
White-naped Woodpecker (Chrysocolaptes festivus) ©WikiC
Pale-headed Woodpecker (Gecinulus grantia) OBI
Bamboo Woodpecker (Gecinulus viridis) OBI
Maroon Woodpecker (Blythipicus rubiginosus) by Ian
Bay Woodpecker (Blythipicus pyrrhotis) OBI
Orange-backed Woodpecker (Reinwardtipicus validus) by Ian
Rufous Woodpecker (Micropternus brachyurus) OBI
Buff-rumped Woodpecker (Meiglyptes tristis) by Ian
Black-and-buff Woodpecker (Meiglyptes jugularis) OBI
Buff-necked Woodpecker (Meiglyptes tukki) OBI
Ashy Woodpecker (Mulleripicus fulvus) ©WikiC
Sooty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus funebris) OBI
Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus) by Nikhil

On the photos or slides, a “by” indicates one of the photographers or videographers, who have given their permission, with links on our sidebar. Please visit their sight to see many more fantastic shots, a “©©” copyright symbol indicates a photo from Creative Commons and ©WikiC is a Creative Commons photo from Wikipedia. “†” indicates the bird is extinct. *LLABS* means it is on Our Life List of All Birds Seen.

Photographers or Videographers used on this page from our sidebar, Photography, are:
Clement Francis Bird Photography
Dan’s Pix (Dan)
Dario Sanches
Dave’s BirdingPix
Ian Montgomery’s Birdway
Nikhil Devasar’s Gallery
Nikhil Devasar’s Gallery-II
Ray’s Wildlife Photography
Reinier’s Wildstock Photos Gallery

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The woodpeckers, piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers are a family, Picidae, of near-passerine birds. Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extreme polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in treeless areas, such as rocky hillsides and deserts.

The Picidae are just one of the eight living families in the order Piciformes. Members of the order Piciformes, such as the jacamars, puffbirds, barbets, toucans, and honeyguides, have traditionally been thought to be very closely related to the woodpeckers, piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers. More recently, DNA sequence analyses have confirmed this view.

There are about 200 species and about 30 genera in this family. Many species are threatened or endangered due to loss of habitat or habitat fragmentation. Two species of woodpeckers, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker and the Imperial Woodpecker, have been considered extinct for about 30 years (there has been some controversy recently whether these species still exist)

The smallest woodpecker is the Bar-breasted Piculet and the largest woodpecker was the Imperial Woodpecker. The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is (or was) slightly smaller. If both the Ivory-billed and Imperial Woodpeckers are indeed extinct, the largest extant woodpecker is the Great Slaty Woodpecker of Southeast Asia.

Members of the family Picidae have strong bills for drilling and drumming on trees and long sticky tongues for extracting food. Woodpecker bills are typically longer, sharper and stronger than the bills of piculets and wrynecks; however their morphology is very similar. The bill’s chisel-like tip is kept sharp by the pecking action in birds that regularly use it on wood. Species of woodpecker and flicker that use their bills in soil or for probing as opposed to regular hammering tend to have longer and more decurved bills. Due to their smaller bill size, many piculets and wrynecks will forage in decaying wood more often than woodpeckers. The long sticky tongues, which possess bristles, aid these birds in grabbing and extracting insects deep within a hole of a tree. (Wikipedia, with editing)

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