Of Cormorants and Anhingas
Dr. James J. S. Johnson
Double-crested Cormorant (L) & Anhinga (R) / both Wikipedia images
But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in it . . . . (Isaiah 34:11a)
Cormorants and bitterns (the latter being a type of heron) are famous to frequently waterways, preying on fish and other aquatic critters. Yet there is another large waterbird that resembles a cormorant, the anhinga.
CORMORANT VERSUS ANHINGA
Cormorants and Anhingas are frequently confused. They are both [fairly big, i.e., bigger than a crow, almost as large as a goose] black birds that dive under the water to fish. Both must dry their feathers in the sun [because their feathers are not 100% waterproofed].
The differences are easy to see. The Anhinga’s beak is pointed for spearing [i.e., stabbing] fish, while the Cormorant’s beak is hooked for grasping its prey. The Cormorants’ body remains above the surface when swimming [unlike the “snake-bird” appearance of a swimming Anhinga, which swims mostly underwater, with only its head and neck emergent]. It [i.e., the Cormorant] lacks the Anhinga’s slender [snake-like] neck, long tail, and white wing feathers.
[Quoting Winston Williams, FLORIDA’S FABULOUS WATERBIRDS: THEIR STORIES (Hawaiian Gardens, Calif.: World Publications, 2015), page 4.]
By the way, this photography-filled waterbird book [i.e., Winston Williams’ FLORIDA’S FABULOUS WATERBIRDS: THEIR STORIES] was recently given to me by Chaplain Bob & Marcia Webel, of Florida, precious Christian friends (of 45+ years) who are also serious birdwatchers.
Of course, there are different varieties of cormorants [e.g., Neotropic Cormorant, Brandt’s Cormorant, Pelagic Cormorant, Great Cormorant, etc.], as Winston Williams observes [ibid., page 4], but the cormorant that you can expect to see in Florida is the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), so called due to white tufted feather “crests” during breeding season. Mostly piscivorous [i.e., fish-eating], cormorants will also eat small crustaceans [e.g., shellfish like crayfish] and amphibians [e.g., frogs], often about one pound of prey daily. These cormorants range over America’s Lower 48 states, especially in the Great Lakes region.
It is the American Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga), however, that is properly nicknamed “Snake-bird” (and a/k/a “American Darter” or “Water Turkey”), due to its mostly-submerged-underwater hunting habit. It eats fish almost exclusively, though it can and sometimes does eat crustaceans (e.g., crabs, shrimp, crayfish) or small aquatic vertebrates (e.g., frogs, newts, salamanders, turtles, snakes, and even baby crocodiles).
America’s Anhinga is a cousin to other darters (a/k/a “snake-birds”) of other continents, such as the Indian Darter, African Darter, and Australian Darter. The term “darter” refers to the piercing dart-like impalement technique that these birds use, for acquiring and securing their prey, just before ingestion. Worldwide, darters like in tropical climes or in regions with almost-tropical weather.
In the Orient, for many generations, cormorants have been harnessed to catch fish for human masters. [See “’C’ Is for Cardinal and Cormorant: ‘C’ Birds, Part 1”, posted at https://leesbird.com/2016/05/18/c-is-for-cardinal-and-cormorant-c-birds-part-1/ .]
Also, cormorant feathers have been used, historically, for stuffing Viking pillows. [See “Viking Pillows were Stuffed for Comfort: Thanks to Ducks, Geese, Eagle-Owls, Cormorants, Seagulls, and Crows!”, posted at https://leesbird.com/2018/04/30/viking-pillows-were-stuffed-for-comfort-thanks-to-ducks-geese-eagle-owls-cormorants-seagulls-and-crows/ .]
Now it is time for a limerick, about an Anhinga:
TABLE MANNERS & TECHNIQUE (ANHINGA STYLE)
Wings spread out, the bird had one wish:
To dive, stab, flip up, and eat fish;
Without cream of tartar,
Fish entered the darter!
‘Twas stab, gulp! — no need for a dish!
My father once removed about five fish hooks from a Cormorant from the Flax Pond Woods area of his home in Setauket,NY.Upon releasing it the birds saffron colored marking from the underneath of its beak down was incredible as it looked up at us .Then it swam off into the salt water during the overcast day,
Every March my daughter and I paddle the Okefenokee Swamp near the Georgia/Florida border (http://www.williamwisephoto.com/okefenokee-swamp.html). There are many, many Cormorants and Anhingas. But what amazes me most is that they swim in treacherously gator-laden waters, their bodies submerged and only their heads sticking out as your illustrations show. Amazingly brave birds (or stupid, which seems more likely with the goofy acting cormorant!). Or perhaps they are full of faith in their Creator? I know I don’t have enough faith to get into the water with the alligators! Malachi 3:11 “And I will rebuke the devourer for your sakes”…
They usually take a double-take to make sure you are seeing what you are seeing. :)
Love that poem!
I have always wondered Lee why it is called a Double-crested Cormorant when I can not see a crest? Your Anhinga is like our Australasian Darter only ours has a white streak along the side of its head..