And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray, (Leviticus 11:13 KJV)
We have looked into this bird before in Birds of the Bible – Ossifrage and the Birds of the Bible Ossifrage Page. Since we have been looking at the actual meanings of the names in the Name Studies, maybe we can discover something else of interest. I hope this long list below of the different translations that are shown are a blessing and not a curse. They were cut down to just show the three birds, except for the translations that like to put all the verses in one verse. (from my e-Sword)
Scanning down through the list the Eagle seems to be no real problem. Most translate it as an Eagle. The last bird, most show as the Osprey or Sea-eagle. Wikipedia says, “The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), sometimes known as the sea hawk, fish eagle or fish hawk,” A few make this last bird one of the vultures. The middle bird is our concentration in this article.
Looking down this list you will find these birds:
- Goshauke or Goshawk
- Bearded Vulture
- Black Vulture
- Latin – grypem or gryphem = griffon
- Spanish – el buitre – (from translator)
buitre alimoche Egyptian vulture
buitre leonado griffon vulture
- or quebrantahuesos – “In 1960, the Mexican ornithologist Rafael Martín del Campo identified the eagle in the pre-Hispanic codex as the Northern Caracara or “quebrantahuesos“, a species common in Mexico (although the name “eagle” is taxonomically incorrect, as the Caracara is in the falcon family). The golden eagle is considered the official bird of Mexico.
What is the Hebrew word for this bird?
From H6536; a claw; also a kind of eagle: – claw, ossifrage.
Many of the online Bible Commentaries and Dictionaries use “bone-breaker” and lean toward Lammergeir. See: Bible Encyclopedia, Net Bible, OED, Bible Suite,and Bible Study Tools.
- (ACV) : the eagle, and the vulture, and the osprey,
- (AKJV) …: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
- (AMP) …: the eagle, the ossifrage, the ospray,
- (ASV) …: the eagle, and the gier-eagle, and the ospray,
- (BBE) …: the eagle and the gier-eagle and the ospray;
- (Bishops) …: The Egle, the Goshauke, and the Ospray,
- (Brenton) …: the eagle and the ossifrage, and the sea-eagle.
- (CEV) Eagles, vultures, buzzards, crows, ostriches, hawks, sea gulls, owls, pelicans, storks, herons, hoopoes, and bats are also disgusting, and you are forbidden to eat any of them.
- (CJB) …: the eagle, the vulture, the osprey,
- (Darby) …: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the sea-eagle,
- (DRB) …: The eagle, and the griffon, and the osprey.
- (ERV) …: eagles, vultures, buzzards,
- (ESV)..: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,
- (ECB)…: the eagle and the ossifrage and the ospray
- (Geneva) … the egle, and the goshauke, and the osprey:
- (GNB) You must not eat any of the following birds: eagles, owls, hawks, falcons; buzzards, vultures, crows; ostriches; seagulls, storks, herons, pelicans, cormorants; hoopoes; or bats.
- (GW) …. They are eagles, bearded vultures, black vultures,
- (HCSB) …: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,
- (HRB) …: the eagle, and the black vulture and the bearded vulture,
- (IAV) …: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
- (ISV) …: the eagle, vulture, osprey,
- (LITV-TSP) …: the eagle, and the black vulture and the bearded vulture,
- (JPS) …: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;
- (KJ2000) …: the eagle, and the vulture, and the osprey,
- (KJV) …: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
- (KJV-1611) …: The Eagle, and the Ossifrage, and the Ospray,
- (LITV) …: the eagle, and the black vulture and the bearded vulture,
- (MKJV) …: the eagle, and the black vulture, and the bearded vulture,
- (MSG) …: eagle, vulture, osprey,
- (NAS77) …: the eagle and the vulture and the buzzard,
- (NASB) ‘…: the eagle and the vulture and the buzzard,
- (NET) … the griffon vulture, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,
- (NIrV) …”‘They include eagles, vultures and black vultures.
- (NIV) …: the eagle, the vulture, the black vulture,
- (NKJV)…: the eagle, the vulture, the buzzard,
- (NRSV) …: the eagle, the vulture, the osprey,
- (RV) …: the eagle, and the gier eagle, and the ospray;
- (The Disciple’s Bible) …: the eagle, and the gier-eagle, and the ospray,
- (TRC) …The eagle, the goshawk, the cormorant, the kite,
- (Tyndale) … The egle, the gooshauke, the cormoraunte, the kyte,
- (UKJV) …: the eagle, and the vulture, and the buzzard,
- (Webster) …: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
- (WEB (R)) …: the eagle, and the vulture, and the black vulture,
- (YLT) …: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
- (Vulgate) … aquilam et grypem et alietum
- (clVulgate) …: aquilam, et gryphem, et haliæetum,
- (LBLA) …: el águila, el buitre y el buitre negro,
- (NBLH)…: el águila, el buitre y el buitre negro,
- (SRV) …: el águila, el quebrantahuesos, el esmerejón,
Hebrew or Greek #s (with some editing)
- (KJV+) …: the eagle,H5404 and the ossifrage,H6538 and the ospray,H5822
- (NASB+) …: the eagle H5404 and the vulture H6538 and the buzzard H5822,
- (Translit+) … . nesher H5404 . . perec H6538 . . ‘ozniyah H5822
- (ABP+) … the G3588 eagle, G105 and the griffin,G1127.3 and the osprey,G230.1
- (HSB) וְאֶת…; like אֶת־ H853 ‘et- הַנֶּ֙שֶׁר֙ H5404 han·Ne·sher the eagle וְאֶת־ H853 ve·’Et הַפֶּ֔רֶס H6538 hap·Pe·res, and the ossifrage וְאֵ֖ת H853 ve·’Et הָעָזְנִיָּֽה׃ H5822 ha·’a·ze·ni·Yah. and the ospray
- (HSB2) … the eagle וְאֶת־ H853 הַפֶּ֔רֶס H6538 and the ossifrage וְאֵ֖ת H853 הָעָזְנִיָּֽה׃ H5822 and the ospray
The Bearded Vulture is in the Gypaetus genus, which is similar to the Vulgate term for it. There are many Old World Vultures in the Accipitridae – Kites, Hawks and Eagles family and most likely it is one of them. A black or bearded one. The Black Vulture above is a New World Vulture and is in the Cathartidae – New World Vultures Family. That “black vulture” is not likely to be the one in this Scriputure.
The Bearded Vulture, like other vultures it is a scavenger, feeding mostly on animal matter from dead animals. It usually disdains the actual meat, however, and lives on a diet that is typically compromised at 85-90% by bone marrow. This is the only living bird species that specializes in feeding on marrow. The Lammergeier can swallow whole or bite through brittle bones up to the size of a lamb’s femur and its powerful digestive system quickly dissolves even large pieces. The Lammergeier has learned to crack bones too large to be swallowed by carrying them in flight to a height of 50–150 m (160–490 ft) above the ground and then dropping them onto rocks below, which smashes them into smaller pieces and exposes the nutritious marrow. They can fly with bones up to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter and weighing over 4 kg (8.8 lb), or nearly equal to their own weight. After dropping the large bones, the Bearded Vulture spirals or glides to down to inspect them and may repeat the act if the bone is not sufficiently cracked. This learned skill requires extensive practice by immature birds and takes up to seven years to master. Its old name of Ossifrage (“bone breaker”) relates to this habit. More seldom, these birds have been observed to try to break bones (usually of a medium size) by hammering them with their bill directly into rocks while perched. (from Wikipedia with editing)
Sounds like a “bone-breaker” and also look at its claws. As I said in the other article “Only God knows which bird was really indicated.” Whichever one it is, they are Birds of Prey and being on the “do not eat” list, they definitely would not end up on my table even though that law was for then. Praise the Lord that the Law was fulfilled through the sinless crucifixion of the Lord Jesus Christ on the cross.
Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. (Matthew 5:17-18 KJV)
And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. (Luke 24:44 KJV)